About how to start a business in Europe , today think every second business owner.
About how to start a business in Europe, today think every second business owner. The reason for this desire is obvious: doing business in Ukraine is difficult, costly and fraught with various surprises (few means them a pleasant change). In that sense it can be said about neighbouring Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia? Indeed, in these countries was a lot of Ukrainian and Russian enterprises. What are the opportunities for Ukrainian business provides company registration in Poland, the Czech Republic or Slovakia?
The Ukrainian business in Poland
In the rating Doing Business – 2014, Poland is 45th place.
Becoming the owner of a Polish company, you get access to the European credit (which means simplified procedures and minimum rates). In addition, the Polish authorities do not skimp on the support of foreign investors : depending on the nature of the company, you can get both tax breaks and cash grants.
Poland is more than a decent option to start a business. First, the minimal language of barter and culture close to us. Second, the simplicity (if to compare with Ukraine) and relative cheapness (compared to other EU countries) business. Third, opening a business in Poland, you get access to the market of the European Union (it is neither more nor less, and as many as 28 countries). And, of course, the standard of living. In 2012, the GDP per capita of the Polish population amounted to nearly 21 thousand.. dollars., whereas in Ukraine it is only 7,5 thousand dollars
Poland is the sixth populous country in Europe (over 38 million). About 50% of the people are in the age category of “35 “. In addition, if you compare with other EU countries, the Polish labor force is cheaper and not inferior in quality. In addition, 38 million population is a significant domestic market.
To start a business in Poland can be with something small. This may be hotel and restaurant business, beauty industry, servicing of computer equipment, translation and the like. Alternatively, you can open in Poland trading company, which will deal with exports to Ukraine imports from Ukraine.
Polish tax incentives and financial opportunities
The Polish authorities encourage foreign investments in the economy of the country by all available means. This and tax incentives, and special economic zones, and grants from the state budget and the EU. Prerequisites for receiving grants are a great investment, secure the employment of the local population and technological innovation.
In regions with relatively high unemployment, there are special economic zones (all the country has 14 of the SEZ total area of more than 6 thousand Hectares). In such zones, subject to all other terms and conditions investors can get tax breaks (or even exemption from income tax) for up to 10 years.
The dialogue between the Polish authorities and foreign investors provides the Polish Agency of information and foreign investment. Its mission is to create the conditions for a stable inflow of foreign investment in the country’s economy and to provide foreign investors with the necessary information for doing business in Poland.
Note that in Poland there are no restrictions on operations in foreign currency. In addition, registered in Poland, companies can obtain financing from sources that are outside of the country. Sources of funding could be the structural funds and the solidarity Fund of Evropeiskogo, the programs of international financial organizations and commercial structures, much more.
Business registration in Poland
To be the founder of the Polish companies, Ukrainian citizen must meet several fairly simple requirements : be at least 18 years old, have a passport (valid for at least 18 months from the date of filing), as well as having the experience of doing business in Ukraine.
Under Polish law, foreign companies and physical persons may engage in Poland in any legal business. To register a company, both personally and on behalf of. The whole process will take up to one month.
The most common form to open company – limited liability company (LLC). The number of founders from one person (preferably 2-3 people), minimum capital – (around 1200 euros), the cost of one share is minimum (12 euros). The management Board of OOO (actual management body of the company) may consist even of a single person. The presence of the Supervisory Board and the audit Committee do not have. Becoming a member of the Board of the Polish LLC, you can get a Polish work visa, residence permit and permanent residence, and eventually citizenship. The company can run without profits, but in any case should cover the costs, including staff salaries. Profit mandatory, if the members of the Board of LLC want to obtain a residence permit in Poland.
Joint stock company with limited liability is very similar to LLC, but has some differences. The authorized capital of a company to twice the authorized capital is (about 2,500 euros), while the cost per share may be significantly less (about 0003 euros). In addition to the Board mandatory Supervisory Board also.
Also, a foreign company can open in Poland, a representative office or a branch.
Reporting in Poland is served monthly: it concerns the profit tax Declaration, VAT and social security contributions. The rate of income tax is 19 %, the VAT rate ranges from 5 % to 23 % (depending on the type of activity, the basic rate – 23 %).
Ukrainian business in Slovakia
In the rating Doing Business – 2014 Slovakia ranked 49th.
The population of Slovakia is small – 5.4 million people, about 50% of which live in cities. GDP per capita, at the end of 2012, nearly 25 thousand (According to this indicator Slovakia occupies 64 place in the world).
Slovakia has positioned itself as a tourist country. And not unreasonably : 5 million Slovaks account for more than 60 ski resorts. In addition, there are many year-round thermal spas. As a consequence, the tourist niche for a business in Slovakia is more than attractive. According to Wikipedia, in 2006, Slovakia was visited by more than 1.6 million tourists (the most popular among the foreign guests were Bratislava and High Tatras).
Another niche is a variety of small commercial enterprises, in particular confectionery. Perspective can drive down and enterprises in the segment of service, as well as enterprises for the production and processing of agricultural products. Its customers in Slovakia can find Internet stores and it companies (these types of businesses are in demand in almost all developed countries).
A perspective direction of business, but requires a more serious investment is green energy (enterprises for the production of biofuels, solar, and hydroelectric). The government supports green energy, in particular, guarantees the purchase of green electricity at fixed rates for 15 years.
Investing in the economy of Slovakia, the foreign businessman can count on investment incentives and various benefits. Their terms depend on the nuances of EU legislation, level of development, unemployment, investment. In General, the investment incentives is indirect (e.g. tax incentives) and direct (cash for the acquisition of fixed capital or job creation). Depending on the nature of the business you can get tax breaks (in particular, income tax), cash grants, reimbursement for the creation of jobs. However, there are restrictions, for example, such benefits are not subject to Bratislava.
The main office, which advises foreign investors, is the Slovak Agency for development of investments and trade. Its mission is to support foreign investment and create a positive image of Slovakia as a country with a favorable investment climate.
Legal forms of business in Slovakia
The establishment of the company in Slovakia takes 15 to 25 days. The two most popular forms of Slovak enterprises available for foreign businessmen :
private company with limited liability is the analogue of the LLC. The founders of the company there may be from 1 to 50 individuals or legal entities Minimum capital – 5 thousand Euro, with each shareholder shall be at least 750 euros.
open joint-stock company in Slovakia can be created by two or more participants : both physical and legal persons. The minimum share capital of 25 thousand euros.
Financial reporting system in Slovakia is simple and straightforward. Accounting as close as possible to the international financial reporting standards. The rate of income tax is 19 %. In the first year of operation the tax is paid before March 31 of the following year. In subsequent years, the income tax is paid quarterly.
Ukrainian business in the Czech Republic
In the ranking of Doing Business 2014 Czech Republic ranks 75th.
Before you open a business in another country, you need to evaluate several factors: the direction of the business, the initial investment amount. The Czech Republic, with its relatively small population (about 10 million), provides several business opportunities. The surest option is all that is connected with the so-called hospitality industry (hotels, cafes and restaurants, tour Desk, Souvenirs). The second option (.. beauty industry, trade, etc.) is a small business as a whole. The third option is to buy in the Czech Republic property and rent it out.
Benefits for Ukrainian business in the Czech Republic
The attractiveness of Czech Republic as a place of business due to the fact that in this country of foreign individuals and legal entities for business registration have the same rights as Czech. The standard of living in the Czech Republic is much higher than the Ukrainian : in 2012 the GDP per capita of the Czech population was more than 27 thousand dollars, while in Ukraine – only 7.5 thousand dollars.
We should not forget about the country’s membership in the European Union : to open a company in Czech Republic, you get access to the markets of 27 European countries. In addition, if you register a business in the Czech Republic, you will be able to buy land or real estate. And last, but not least important advantage is the possibility of obtaining annual business visa with possibility of extension. After five years of regular visa extension and the implementation of a number of requirements to qualify for permanent residence, even after 10 years – for citizenship.
Foreign businesses in the Czech Republic can count on the perks – tax or monetary (for example, in exchange for the creation of jobs or investments in training of employees). Opening a business in the Czech Republic, you will not feel cut off from the Motherland : Russian and Ukrainians here a lot. Thus, according to Czech research company Čekia as of October 2011, 5% of all Czech legal entities owned by the Russians, 3 % – in the ownership of the Ukrainians.
For most activities in the Czech Republic must obtain permission – a license, which is vidovitost Department. Without a license, can do persons of creative professions, and those who buy property for renting it out. To register a company in the Czech Republic you personally, and you by proxy.
Legal forms of business in the Czech Republic
In order to open a business in this country, you must meet some requirements: to be legally competent to reach the age of 18, have no criminal record and no obligations to the tax authorities of the Czech Republic.
There are several structures that can be registered in the Czech Republic: limited liability company (OOO) is an open partnership, limited company, a credit cooperative. The registration process does not last long – up to 15 days, depending on the activity of the company.
The most popular and economic for the start form – is, OOO. The number of shareholders can range from 1 to 50, the authorized capital is (about 7.5 thousand Euro). Income tax – 24 %. For the Foundation open society authorized capital is not needed at all, the number of founders is at least 2 individuals. The minimum capital is (about 74 thousand euros). For each member applies a progressive tax (from 15% to 35 %) and the contribution to the pension Fund.
To the company in the Czech Republic was considered valid, it must have a registered office and annually submit the report. The annual balance can be not only positive, but also zero or even negative – it will not be considered a violation of the law.