There are three methods.
The special theory of relativity, albert Einstein argues that photons, i.e. light particles, moving with a constant speed of 299792458 meters per second. And, as far as is known, nothing moves faster. However, in the Universe, particles are often accelerated to a speed equal to 99.9% the speed of light, writes the Chronicle.info with reference to UNIAN.
As explained by NASA scientists, there are several ways to accomplish this. One of the most common recipes is to disperse the particle with the electromagnetic fields. As its name suggests, the method we are talking about electric and magnetic fields. They accelerate the movement of charged particles, pushing them in a similar way that gravity affects objects with mass. Under the right conditions, electromagnetic fields can accelerate particles to a speed close to the speed of light.
Scientists on Earth use this method in the special research systems, in particular in the Large hadron Collider in Switzerland and Fermilab in Chicago. These accelerators smash particles into each other, creating a collision, which is accompanied by the release of significant amounts of energy. This gives scientists the opportunity to learn some amazing physical processes.
The second method is a magnetic explosion. In space a lot of magnetic fields, which are sometimes tangled together. When this occurs, there is voltage at the contact lines, which can cause an explosion in a process called magnetic reconnection.
This leads to rapid changes in the magnetic field, which in turn creates an electric field that accelerates the movement of particles to incredible speeds. It is believed that this process is behind phenomena such as solar winds. The latest is a stream of charged particles that broke away from the Sun. Magnetic reconnection also causes the Aurora, when the solar magnetic field for the Earth’s magnetosphere.
Astronomers explained what damage can hackers cause the alien
The third method assumes that the particles can reach a velocity close to that with which light travels, at a contact condition with electromagnetic waves. When electromagnetic waves collide, their fields can be compressed. When this happens, any charged particles that are caught between waves, you can start to accelerate due to the movement back and forth between them. This type of interaction between waves and particles is considered to be responsible for the acceleration of certain cosmic radiation – radiation that occurs s outside our Solar system.