What is measles what are the symptoms of the disease and how to treat it
The name “measles” comes from the Latin word morbilli. Acute infectious disease the causative agent is measles virus. It spreads very rapidly and attacks primarily children aged 2 to 5 years. But lately, doctors fix the surge in incidence in adults.
It is known that the measles virus is resistant to hot water, and irradiation and disinfection. She remains active at room temperature two to three days, in temperatures well below zero for two weeks. In addition, temperatures of -15 and below, the virus persists and is able to survive for a long time. The causative agent of virus is airborne. You can become infected, for example, when talking to someone who’s sick, and even if you stay with an infected in the same room. The virus can manifest itself in adjacent buildings, on other floors.
The incubation period ranges from 7 to 17 days. Children not vaccinated against measles, the most vulnerable to infection. Dangerous complications that can accompany the course of the disease. Measles can cause side effects, such as pneumonia or bacterial infection.
People suffering from immunodeficita, very hard to tolerate disease, high percentage of mortality. The most susceptible children aged 2 to 5 years. But the catch can and adults if not vaccinated. The history starts with the following symptoms: poor sleep, lethargy, malaise, lack of appetite. After some time added cold, high temperature and cough. At first hard to distinguish measles from ordinary flu.
The initial stage of the disease can occur without fever, but the cough and runny nose acute. The typical symptoms for adults: inflammation of the lymph nodes, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye, or as she is also called conjunctivitis. These signs will help you recognize the measles. On the third day of the disease appears in the sky of education, similar to pink dots and on the inside of the cheeks and lips – small spots.
The characteristic symptom of measles is the rash on the skin of the head, face, feet, hands. Soon red rash similar to rubella spots, cover the whole body sick. Manifestation of the rash is a signal to immediately seek medical attention.
The main symptoms that will help to identify the disease:
lack of appetite;
inflammation of the mucous membrane in the throat;
inflammation of the lymph nodes;
inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye;
redness of the eye;
fear of light;
If the disease progresses without complications, then on the fourth or fifth day ill get better: rash fades, the temperature normalizerbase, inflammation of the eye passes. If measles occurs without complications, it can be treated at home under the supervision of a physician. If the disease is severe, then the patient is treated in the hospital. In addition, a special drug against measles virus does not exist, therefore, requires a comprehensive treatment.
Treatment is focused on alleviating the symptoms of the disease and enhance human immunity.
increased dosage of vitamin C and A to enhance immunization of the body
the cough medicine. For example, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen if no contraindications;
rinse mouth and throat with a decoction of chamomile or soda;
drugs against inflammation of the eye;
if there is secondary infection or complications, the patient is prescribed antibiotics.
Rules of proper maintenance of the patient at home or in the house:
you need to do daily wet cleaning;
several times a day to ventilate the room;
curtains it is better to draw, as the patient there is the fear of bright light;
it is more likely to change bed linens and pajamas;
drink plenty of liquids: tea, juice, water.
should not stress the stomach with heavy food. It is better to give soup, sour-milk products, mashed potatoes, vegetables and the like, boiled meat.
After recovery is necessary to maintain the quarantine. The body is still weak, and the slightest influence from the outside may provoke re-infection. Requires an active immunization of the body. Measles can lead to serious complications because the human immune system is very weakened, and therefore vulnerable to infections and viruses. In addition, the virus can lead to death.
Also, the disease can lead to pneumonia, bronchitis. And the children sometimes inflamed middle ear. Measles is especially dangerous for pregnant women: about a third case the infection causes premature birth. Measles can also cause:
inflammation of the middle ear;
inflammation of the mastoid process of the temporal bone;
inflammation of cervical lymph nodes;
bacterial pneumonia, primary and secondary;
lesions of the nervous system;
in rare cases, encephalitis.
The vaccination schedule depends on routine vaccination is carried out or it is an emergency measure. Decided to vaccinate infants up to one year, then in six years. In addition, also carried out the vaccination in 15 years and adults up to 35 years of age. Often done comprehensive vaccination that prevents infectious diseases (measles, mumps, rubella).
The person who’s already had the measles develop antibodies that protect against infection. Thus, this disease is not transmitted to people. The main and most effective measure to prevent the disease are vaccinated. The immune system of a vaccinated person is highly protected from infection. For example, a vaccinated child can catch measles in a public place or school.
Vaccination is extremely important for women who are planning a pregnancy soon. Make the vaccine a month before conception, during pregnancy, her conduct is strictly prohibited. It can cause fetal malformations, miscarriage, etc.