The causes of kidney stones include the lack of a liquid, a hyperfunction of the parathyroid glands, diet.
Kidney stones are solid formations of minerals and salts, which appear inside your kidneys, reports Rus.Media.
Kidney stones appear due to different reasons and can affect any part of your urinary tract – from the kidneys to the bladder. Very often the stones are formed because of concentrated urine, which contains a lot of salts and minerals, they begin to crystallize and stick together.
- What is kidney stones?
- Causes and symptoms of kidney stones
- Diagnosis and treatment of kidney stones
What is kidney stones?
The process of passing the stones through the kidneys are very painful, but if the time to diagnose this condition, the authority will not receive serious damage. Modern medicine offers many different treatments kidney stones – in some cases enough to drink a lot of water and take painkillers, but sometimes you have to go for surgery.
After the treatment, and it is almost always effective, the doctor recommends a preventive treatment to reduce the risk of stone formation, and will also advise to choose the right diet.
Causes and symptoms of kidney stones
Kidney stones can form without a cause, but there are certain factors that increase the risk of their occurrence.
In most cases, the cause of kidney stones is concentrated urine containing a large amount of crystallooptic substances like calcium, oxalate and uric acid. In the urine lacks substances that prevent these crystals to stick together. The result is ideal conditions for the formation of kidney stones.
If the doctor will be able to determine the type of kidney stone, it will be able to determine the cause of its appearance, and choose the most effective treatment. If you know that your kidney’s stones, and noticed how one of them came out, try to save it and refer to the physician for analysis.
Types of kidney stones
Calcium stones are the most common type of kidney stones. They usually consist of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a substance that your liver produces. In addition, it contains some fruits, vegetables and nuts. The concentration of calcium oxalate may increase because of the diet, high doses of vitamin D, intestinal shunt surgery and metabolic disorders.
The stones come from calcium phosphate. This type of stones is more common in metabolic disorders such as renal tubular acidosis. In some cases, these stones may be associated with migraine and medication from convulsions.
Strojov stones appear in the background of the infection. As a rule, they quickly form and grow, and this process is not accompanied by a number of symptoms.
Urinary stones are typically for people who do not drink enough fluid or too quickly lose it. They can also appear in those who are on protein diet or suffer from gout. To increase the risk of urinary stones and some genetic factors.
Cystine stones appear in people with a hereditary disorder where the kidneys secrete too much of certain amino acids.
The factors that increase the risk of kidney stones include:
the family history of the disease. If someone in your family had kidney stones, you too can face this problem.
– dehydration. Lack of fluid increases the risk of stone formation.
– certain diet, e.g. high protein content, salt and sugar, increase the risk of stone formation. This is especially true of salty foods. A large amount of salt increases the amount of calcium that is to filter your kidneys. If they can not cope with this task, calcium begins to accumulate and form stones.
– obesity. The body mass index is directly proportional to the risk of stone formation.
– diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and operations.
Kidney stone may not cause symptoms until they begin to move about inside the kidney or will not penetrate into the ureter – the tube that connects the kidney and bladder. In this case, the symptoms of kidney stones include:
– severe pain in side and under the ribs;
– pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin;
the pain comes in waves and can be of varying intensity;
– pain when urinating;
pink, red or brown urine;
is dim and reeks of urine;
– nausea and vomiting;
– constant desire to urinate;
– frequent urination;
– fever and chills, if infection is present the body;
– minor urination.
The main thing to remember is that the pain caused by kidney stones, can change its intensity depending on the location of the stone.
Diagnosis and treatment of kidney stones
If your doctor suspects that your kidneys formed stones, confirm the diagnosis will help him:
– blood test for uric acid and calcium;
– urine analysis for minerals and salt;
– CT, MRI, x-ray, ultrasound;
– analysis of stones, which is already out. This will help to determine the type of kidney stones and to choose the right treatment.
The choice of treatment of kidney stones depends on their type and size.
Small stones with minimal symptoms do not require invasive treatment. To get rid of these stones, you will need:
– drink more water (3 litres a day) to clear the urinary system of excess salts and minerals. Urine should be clear or almost clear.
– analgesic. The passage of even a small stone is accompanied by pain and spasms. To ease your condition, your doctor may recommend pain medication.
– medications that help to relax the muscles of the ureter. Such medications are called alpha blockers, and help to ease the symptoms and speed up the process of entering stones.
Kidney stones that cannot be treated conservatively or because they are too big to go out on their own or because they cause bleeding, kidney damage and urinary tract infection – need to treat more aggressive methods.
– the use of ultrasound to break stones. For certain stones, depending on their size and location – your doctor may recommend a procedure called extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL).
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy uses ultrasonic waves to create strong vibrations that break the stones into small pieces. The procedure lasts from 40 to 60 minutes and can cause moderate pain.
Side effects of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has bruises on his back and abdomen, bleeding around the kidney and other adjacent organs, and discomfort when little pieces start coming out through the urinary tract.
If the stones are too large, it can only be removed surgically. A procedure called percutaneous nephrolithotomy allows you to remove stones from the kidney using small telescopes and instruments inserted into a small hole in the back.
During surgery, the patient is under General anesthesia, and must lie in the hospital at least two days.
To remove a small stone in the ureter or the kidney the doctor may use a tool called a ureteroscope through the external urinary organs.
Once the ureteroscope reaches the stone, he grabs it with special tools, and break into small pieces. During this procedure, the patient must be under anesthesia.
Sometimes cause of kidney stones can be excessive activity of the parathyroid glands. The parathyroid glands are located in the four corners of your thyroid gland. If they produce too much parathyroid hormone, the calcium level in the blood begins to increase, which leads to the formation of stones.
Cause of hyperparathyroidism can a benign tumor of one of the parathyroid glands. Its removal helps to prevent the formation of new stones.