First you need to understand the basic parameters of tires : construction, purpose and type, tread design, size, indexes, symbols, different manufacturers. And then, putting together all the requirements and queries, everyone will be able to choose exactly the tires you need.
It would seem that difficult in the choice of tires … the usual ” rubber donut “. However, think about it for a second : how much space on the road is Your car? The correct answer – so how much of his 4 tires. After all, tires are the only link between the vehicle and the road through them is transmitted the engine’s torque for acceleration, the tires cling to the asphalt under braking or hard cornering, the softness or the hardness of the tire directly affects the overall feeling of comfort and quiet drive… So choose the right tyres from the numerous (about 30 thousand models in the catalog ) are not so simple. But with our tips – not so difficult! First you need to understand the basic parameters of tires : construction, purpose and type, tread design, size, indexes, symbols, different manufacturers. And then, putting together all the requirements and queries, everyone will be able to choose exactly the tires you need.
Today most tires (even for commercial cars and motorcycles ) will be performed at radial tubeless scheme. What does that mean? The bus consists of several main parts : the carcass, breaker, tread, sidewall. The frame is the main power element of the tire, which gives it strength and rigidity. It is made of yarn ( textile or metal), which are assembled in several layers (usually 4 ). If the filaments intersect at an angle, then these tires are called diagonal. The more popular radial tire is when the threads of the frame are parallel from one Board to another. At the moment, bias tires are mainly used in trucks (greater load capacity ), and the radial – in cars : they have lower rolling resistance, better damphouse bumps, last longer. Brecker is the inner layer, located on the entire surface of the tire between the carcass and tread. Tape in brekina layer intensified steel cord and glued one on another so as to place the intersection of the directions of the cord, and thus the rigidity of the tire. Ribbon belt perform many functions: they must be strong enough to resist the tension from the centrifugal tires, stiff in the transverse direction for better handling, resist side wear, have good elasticity to absorb irregularities in the road. The tread – portion of the tire immediately in contact with the road surface. Superimposed over pekarnogo layer. It protector features mainly determine the limiting capabilities of the entire bus, then how well it holds the road, how soft or hard the rubber is, how well is given water from the contact patch. The sidewall also has an important function : mount the tire on the wheel, transferring the torque from the wheel directly to the protector, protecting tires and wheels from impact, protect the cord from moisture and marking. In addition, we should not forget that the tubeless tire has in its design and deeper the separation, for example, in the inner part, the frame layer a layer of synthetic rubber, which is responsible for the integrity of the tire. And the belt layer and the tread can be between thin layers of rubber with different characteristics, for example, for a better connection of the protector with a breaker. Tubeless tires have many advantages over tires with cameras inside, they weigh less, are better balanced, with the punctures slowly losing air.
The purpose of the tyres
In its purpose, all the tires are divided into: ordinary car tires, tires for trucks, tires for minibuses and commercial vehicles, truck tyres, motorini. The usual summer car tyre : smooth tread with no protruding parts, drainage ditches ; winter tires additionally appear lamella and possibly the spikes of an Ordinary car tire is the most extensive group of products that is designed for the widest group of buyers. Here you can find tire for compact cars or large sedans, family SUVs, or sports cars. The main difference and advantage of a conventional automobile tire is the best balance of all main characteristics : grip, comfort and quietness, price. Of course, in a huge number of products you can pick up more than the sport model, the tires for driving on wet roads, or the tires, saving fuel, but we’ll talk about that later. And in General the issues are more a “variation on a theme…” than a global change of the destination bus. professional tire for SUVs stands out huge grundsatzen that make the tire look like a Professional mill tyres for SUV’s are more “harsh” and the developed tread pattern, which allows you to have grip even on slippery ground. But don’t confuse tires for SUVs tires for SUVs that are in the preliminary group and just referred to “variation on a theme…” improvement of patency of the conventional tire. However, to confuse them would be difficult – besides the already mentioned “toothy” tread with great grundsatzen, professional tyres for SUVs are often different and the other marking (in the style of 8.5 X15 ; 8,25 R15 ; 10,5 X31 ) which do not converge with the traditional ( for example, 235/60R16 ). Tyres for commercial vehicles and vans usually have a simple drawing, making solid rubber wears slowly, even under heavy loads. Another feature is the letter “C” in the tyre size designation the Next large group is a tyre for vans and commercial vehicles. They have higher load capacity due to special design. These tires are quite simple tread design and special wear resistant rubber. They can also be identified by the abbreviation, which is often present by the letter C : for example, 185/60R14C or 185R14C. As a result, these tires can last longer, carry more, but for a normal car they will be very hard, and the deterioration in running performance (braking, handling ) will be visible. Finally, there are two special groups of tires : Morosini designed for motorcycles or mopeds, and truck tires designed for large trucks and large buses. These tires are created according to completely different principles: the internal construction, tread pattern, symbol, etc. Suffice it to say that truck tires of the same model can vary by installation location (rear or front axle, the management or control axle, leading or not leading axle), and motorcycle tyres often work out each individual element of the protector based on how much the bike will lean in a turn on these tires. The word is a separate world.
The type of tire
So, back to the three most popular groups of tires : conventional cars, vnedorozhe, and commercial. These tires also share another important factor is the seasonality of use. So there are three types of tires : summer, winter ( studded and not studded ), all-season tires. Summer tires are designed for operation in the warm season, when the average temperature exceeds + 7-10 degrees Celsius. These tires usually feature a smooth “sleek” tread pattern for stability characteristics even on a hot summer road (rubber “not floats” from the heat) and large grooves for water drainage when driving in the rain. While the picture itself may be different: arrow-shaped, symmetrical, consisting of a plain rectangular blocks… the Main thing here is the “smoothness” of tread grooves for water drainage. Winter tires, on the contrary, have a protector, a fully “chopped” minor chipping – lamellae. Lamellae help the tyre better to cling to the irregularities of the ice, snow, icy pavement. Also typically winter tyres have a directional tread pattern, reminiscent of the boom that helps to shed water and snow slush from the place of contact of the tyre with the road. It happens that this half-hearted arrow, that is, the focus is only in the left or right side of the tread. But the General gist is not changed – streloobraznaja part to drain water or melting snow and lots of sipes to improve traction on ice, snow, icy roads. Often, however, conventional rubber slats is not enough, and then use spikes : virtual – steel post pin, which is driven into the ice. Just try to move… here’s something! That is the main benefit of winter tires – good traction with smooth ice, where the slats to hold on to can’t. However, all the base layers of winter tires ( sagittal drawing, of the slats) are present here. It would seem that it is the perfect solution for winter – studded tires. But they are not without disadvantages: bad behavior and braking on dry clean pavement, loud noise, increased fuel consumption, etc.
So what to choose? First, be sure to choose the tire for the season, or rather the temperature. The Rubicon is mentioned mark +7-10 degrees Celsius. Then the hard rubber summer tires hardens and finally she was not able to provide the proper level of grip, and hence cannot guarantee good handling and braking. Accordingly, it is time to put winter tires. And if You live in the city and often drive on the roads precisely normal, without thorns ; but if I have to slip in the virgin snow and drive on icy ascents – it is best to choose winter tires. Well, with the arrival of spring should change the winter tires back to summer. Otherwise, warmed by the sun the road a winter tire tread soft rubber will wear out very quickly. All season tires try to be “All at once” from summer tires here, large rectangular blocks, and from the winter – lamella – notch However, there is another type of tires – all-season. Maybe they are the “Golden mean” which allows you to forget about changing the tires before the start of the new season? Not exactly, more of another relevant proverb : not fish… the fact that all season tires are a compromise between hard summer and soft winter tires, between the solid smooth tread and advanced winter pattern. In the end, these tires are often unable to provide any clarity in the management of the summer road ( through the “floated” in the heat of the rubber and “loose” a protector) nor a firm grip on snow or on ice ( no studs, rubber ” frozen “, the number of notches and slats still insufficient ). As a result, all-season tires are well manifested with a slight range of variation of climatic conditions in winter is not below +0-2 degrees. and a little snow, summer is not more than +20. But when in Ukraine in the summer the temperature is consistently above +30 and in winter it can be -20 and snow “knee-deep “, all-season tires is unlikely to be the optimal choice. The only exception is professional tires for off : them developed tread grips well enough and for the annual mud and winter snow. But of the subtle habits of the car on a good road can not even remember.
The tread pattern
Today tyre is used the three main type of tread pattern: symmetrical underlying undirected ; directed sagittal symmetric ; asymmetric directed. Each has its advantages and disadvantages and we briefly describe them. Non-directional tread pattern very simple in its structure, each part is a mirror image of the other half of the Base non-directional symmetric tread pattern is the pattern, symmetrical with each other in various parts of the composite protector along though, at least in breadth, and the pattern on the two will be displayed inverted. Typically, such a pattern looks in the form of several identical blocks – rhombi with grooves between them. This is the easiest type of graphic to use in an inexpensive tire. He could not provide outstanding performance handling, because no direction of water drainage, no distribution in work areas of the tread… But the tires with this figure still has an important advantage, besides low price, these tires cannot be installed in the wrong direction. And this quality is valued by car manufacturers, which continue to equip their low-cost machines such tires. After all, as you don’t put the tire on the disc, which side do not put the assembled wheel, but the protector will still work according to the specified parameters. But it seems that here the advantages of tyres with a symmetrical tread Neispravan and over. Directed symmetrical tread pattern is clearly reminiscent of a Christmas tree or an arrow, due to water and slush quickly discharged from the centre of the tyre to the edges. first appeared in the summer rain tires, but over time switched to winter tyres, where reigns is still the Next step was the tires with a symmetrical directional tread pattern. This bus clearly stands out arrow-shaped tread pattern, and the tip of the “arrow” always lies strictly in the center of the tread width. The main advantage of these tyres is the effective removal of water, dirt, melting snow from the points of contact when hitting the “arrows” on the water or dirt, as it is pushed along the guide rails of the boom from the centre of the tyre to the edges. In the end, the protector is in contact with a clean road surface, thus improving adhesion, and it better acceleration, and better turning and better braking. The effectiveness of such streambrother tread was so high that it is used for several decades already. And if the summer tires are gradually moving towards another figure ( asymmetric ), then winter in their bulk remain loyal to it streambrother symmetric directional tread, because there is nothing better in the matter of removing dirt and melting snow from the tires not yet invented. These tyres have only one drawback – it is necessary to monitor the correctness of their position : these tires it is important to establish in accordance with the direction of rotation, which is made in the form of large arrows, or the arrows labeled ” Rotation “. If the tire will rotate in the wrong direction, the “arrow” to move water from the center to the edges, and Vice versa – to collect all the edges to the center of the tread, which will deteriorate the tire grip. Directed the asymmetric tread pattern is when the right and left sides of the tread is not symmetrical, but one side definitely resembles half of a “Christmas tree” or “arrow” described above. Basically, this protector is used for summer tyres, but gradually begins to win the position and in class winter tires. Finally, the third type of pattern is asymmetrical directional tires. In this case, the protector divided by the width of the several zones, each of which is responsible for its own area of work: as they say ” the Blacksmith forges and the Reaper shakes “. While certainly there is an area with a directional tread pattern that helps to wring out water, mud, melted snow from the centre of the tyre to the edges (as described above). At the same time another area may be responsible for the improvement of the driveability and / or braking on dry road, and there the tread looks more dense, has more hard solid blocks. This is the most difficult type of tread pattern, but today he gives the best operating results are : better grip, efficient allocation of water and mud from the contact patch. Today the majority of summer tires and many winter models, and even relatively inexpensive, switching to asymmetric directional tread pattern. But these tires have a huge minus – it is necessary to carefully monitor their installation : in addition to controlling the direction of rotation (double arrow and / or arrow “Rotation” ), you should check and install outer and inner sides (indicated by the label on the side “Outside” and “Inside” ).
Transcript of size and index of the tires
Normally the tyre size written on its sidewall and looks like this : 185/60R14 82T. Deciphering the tire size the following: 185 – width of tyre tread, in mm. 60 – height profile of the tyre as a percentage of its width (that is, 185 mm X 60 % = 111 mm); R is an indication that the tire is of radial construction; 14 – inner diameter of the tire in inches ( diameter of rim to which tyre is worn) ; 82 – the load index of the tyre, the maximum permissible load per tire, T – speed index of the tyre, the maximum permissible speed. As you can see, all the tire parameters, in addition to indexes of speed and load are variables that are easily recognized without special knowledge. Often the tire with the symbol XL, which stands for Extra Load or Extended Load, and indicates that these tyres are prepared for work with heavy loads. Also often on the sidewall indicate the date of production : symbols encoded in the form of four numbers, placed in a small oval. The production date is in the format “2509” and stands for ” week 25 of 2009.” Among other important designations on the tire surface – the direction of its rotation (remember, the arrow of “Rotation” ), the internal and external bus side ( “Outside” and “Inside” respectively). Among other symbols you can meet the characters Run Flat, RF, RFT Zero Pressure – all signs of the tires who are not afraid of puncture, colloquially ” Ran flat “. Typically, these tires have reinforced sidewalls that allow you to drive on a flat tyre before 60-80-100 km with limited bandwidth – just to find the tire and change the tire. But, unfortunately, these tires typically deteriorate after even a small run without pressure, at the time, like a normal tire can be removed to put the spare wheel, to come to the tire, fix the tire there and use it further. As for the release date of the tire, it employs a simple rule : the fresher the tire the better. Try to avoid old tires, which are released a year and a half or two ago, because for a long time they lose their functional qualities and could be subject to deformation during storage in the “stack” of tires in stock. At the same time, we should not demand from the seller the freshest tyres, it often happens that they just have not managed to deliver. For example, if in September you need to buy winter tyres, they may be made in the beginning of the year, and maintained throughout the summer season. Therefore, deviations in production date up to six months is normal, but if it is more then advisable to seek the fresher tyres.
Manufacturers and models of tires
Now for the tire manufacturers. As elsewhere in the world, there are producers of premium-level, mid-level and budget level. It is important to note that often several tire brands are tied together in a group headed by a premium manufacturer. And often the tires of a premium brand in a few years begin to be issued under the brand of the middle class, with a corresponding decrease in prices. Manufacturers of premium level usually release the top models of tires that are leaders in their class and have virtually no weaknesses. For example, even winter tires can provide the behavior on dry pavement is better than non-studded winter tyre producers of the middle class. Or Vice versa – there were times when the comparative test studless tires premium level avoided cheap studded tires even in such difficult conditions like braking on ice or a route on Packed snow (ie where you would normally studded tyres manifest themselves best ). Premium tyre uses the latest developments : three-dimensional slats and shaped (square, triangle ) spikes in the winter tires, polished tracks for water drainage and special notches to reduce noise levels in summer tires, etc. are Among the leading manufacturers of premium tires you can call the following companies : Nokian ( Nokian ), Michelin ( Michelin), Continental ( continental ), Goodyear ( Gudger ). Also a good tire release Pirelli ( Pirelli ), Bridgestone ( Bridgestone), Dunlop ( Dunlop), recently joined their club Kumho ( Kumho ) and Hankook ( Hankook) that were not previously risen above the level of the “hard middle “. However, the class of “hard middle” today is very much alive. Basically here are the brands that are associated with premium brands mentioned above. And often over time, and the release of new models, the top tires down to the tire level of the middle class. In the end, the bus, which is more 3-5 years ago was the leader of his class, plays in the middle class. With all the distinctive characteristics of the tires (either summer or winter ) are preserved, but added to them a more than adequate price. And this is the salt of this class of tires – balanced characteristics which will satisfy most drivers, with very attractive prices. Among the manufacturers of the middle class include: Gislaved ( Gislaved ), Debica ( Debica ), Matador ( Matador ), Nordman ( Nordman, now under the brand name Nokian ), Fulda ( Fulda ), Barum ( Barum ), some models Pirelli, Bridgestone, Kumho, Hankook. Finally, the budget tyres are fully justifies its name – here the main violin plays price. Often it is in the class of budget tyres can be found “seseseko” for poor motorists, but it is difficult to find a tire that can compete with even the middle class, discussed above. However, the price solves all: budget tyres may be cheaper than the premium tyres the same size in 2-2,5 times! In this class the ball is ruled by Chinese and native Russian producers, also represented by old models of tires of the middle class, for example, Debica. To this class also should include, as it is not sad, and Ukrainian Rosava tyres ( tires ), although the latter model ( SQ summer series and winter series WQ ) quite successfully compete with the middle class described above. The place of production of the tire doesn’t matter – globalization and the twenty-first century in the yard! Forget that Nokian is always Finland, and Goodyear in the United States. For example, now owns the Nokian plant in Russia and produces a bus there, and often the top models. And the company has brand Goodyear Debica, so European Goodyear tires are often made in Poland. The situation is similar with Slovak – German company Continental, or “true Italian” Pirelli. Often the place of production plays no role: modern computerized equipment plants, continuous monitoring representatives of the parent company, thoroughly checked the compounding of rubber for tyres – all this reduces the possibility of the emergence and influence of the notorious human factor to almost zero.
Storage of tyres
How to store tires? This is another important question. Mandatory rule – without access to sunlight (otherwise the rubber over time, “crack” ) and at a temperature in the range from +5 to +25 degrees Celsius. Your tyres without wheels are best stored in a vertical position (standing on the tread ) and the tire to the wheel rim in a horizontal ( lying on each other in a stack ). And in the first and second event bus, it is desirable to rotate and shift – in other words, to change the place of contact, to avoid “caking” of the tyre in one place and the gradual deformation of the cord. Of course, a good place you can call the brand ” tyre hotels “, but who can guarantee that the tires are stored in such ideal conditions as described in the brochures.
We have clarified most of the issues related to the choice of tires. Of course, this issue is deeper and more interesting, but there are more important things that require time and attention: children, family, relatives, home nest… So I hope that this buyer’s guide will help You to save power, money and most importantly time for something more important than trivial “rubber donuts” tires.