As soon as there was a weapon, some types tried to ban. But only in the XX century the question of banning certain types of weapons came up thoroughly.
Homer spoke disapprovingly about the bow is the weapon of cowards. Popes unsuccessfully banned the crossbow.
The name of these bullets, also known as an expansive, unfolding, was due to the fact that was developed at the British arms factory located in the suburb of Kolkata’s dum-Dum.
These balls with the cut on the nose of the shell open like a flower and cause terrible wounds. In the early 1890s bullets dum-dum appeared, and in 1899 was banned by the Declaration on the use of easily unfolding and plushevaya bullets, adopted at the Hague conference – the first ever peace conference convened on the initiative of the Russian Emperor Nicholas II.
The reason for the ban is “excessive cruelty” of these munitions.
But expanding bullets, it is officially still exist in the hunting and police weapon: high stopping power combined with low probability of hitting bleed when hit the target, that reduces the risk of bystanders.
Primitive chemical improvised weapons used in Ancient Greece. But in industrial scale it was applied in World war I. However, despite the lethality of his actions, chemical weapons showed low efficiency. In 1928, in Geneva, signed a Protocol on the prohibition of the use in hostilities, suffocating, poisonous and other gases.
The ban did not help, and during World war II aggressors – Germany and Japan – have used toxic substances for cleaning stubbornly defended fortifications and quarries where he was hiding partisans.
Chemical weapons were used late in the Vietnam war (1964-1973) it was used by both sides, as well as in the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988).
The last time toxic substances banned in 1997, when entered into force, the Convention on the prohibition of the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and on their destruction. It is expected that the complete destruction of chemical weapons is expected to 2017-19.
The predecessor of Napalm can be considered “Greek fire” – a combustible mixture, invented by the Byzantines in the VII century. “Greek fire” was burning even on the water surface.
Napalm was invented in the USA in 1942 and was used by the army of this country during the Second world war, the Korean war (1950-1953), and especially widely during the Vietnam war. Napalm was used and other countries: Israel, Iraq, Argentina.
As the damaging action from the Napalm spreads uncontrolled, it often suffered by civilians. And in 1980, the United Nations was adopted the “Protocol on prohibitions or restrictions on the use of incendiary weapons”.
According to statistics, the mine accounts for a tenth of the total number of losses. There were, however, exceptions: in the Korean war (1950-1953) losses from them, the UN force was 40%, and Vietnamese – 60-70%.
Mines have a huge psychological effect: to force the soldiers to advance on a minefield (when losses are lower than from the shelling) could neither orders nor threats.
The inhumane these weapons is that even many years after the end of hostilities they continue to blow up civilians. In 1997, the Ottawa signed the Convention on the prohibition of the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines and on their destruction. But despite the decision of the Ottawa Convention, the prohibition is violated everywhere.
The forerunner of this weapon can be considered a normal hunting shotgun. The development of the idea became an artillery shot, and then the shrapnel. The first cluster bomb used by the Germans in 1939, Polish troops fell upon conventional bombs filled with hundreds of little bombs. Until the end of the last century, cluster munitions have become very effective weapons that proved the military conflicts of the time.
Due to the imperfections of fuses, not all bombs exploded, effectively becoming landmines. Despite the improvement of the mechanisms of fuses and the killer, the weapon was deemed inhumane.
In 2008 in Dublin signed the Convention on the prohibition of the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of cluster munitions and on their destruction. However, the largest producers of cluster munitions – the US, Russia, China – this agreement is not signed.
Since ancient times in the besieged city were thrown corpses of the plague to cause an epidemic among the defenders. The most famous case – the siege of the Mongols Genoese fortress in the Crimea in 1346, when after the bombing of the “Black Death” spread, wiped out a third to half of Europe.
During the Second World war the Japanese used biological weapons, but has achieved modest results – no more than 700 people between 1940 and 1945.
This weapon has a huge drawback: pathogens are virtually unmanaged and do not distinguish friend from foe. To break free, they will destroy all life in its path indiscriminately. In addition, they can mutate, and these changes are difficult to predict. This is a “double-edged” weapons decided to ban. In 1972 in Geneva, was signed the “Convention on the prohibition of the development, production and stockpiling of bacteriological weapons and toxins and on their destruction”.
Weapons are used by terrorists who respect no conventions. In the twentieth century recorded a dozen cases of planned and committed bicherakov. The most famous is sending letters with anthrax in 2001.
Unlike the above types of exterminating humanity, it’s hypothetical. It is assumed artificial influence on weather and climate individual region and the whole continent.
However, history has few examples of such changes. The most famous operation “Spinach” when the U.S. military during the Vietnam war made a significant lengthening of the rainy season and the increase in their intensity three times. The forest road turned into a swamp, the enemy’s communications were disturbed. Also for many years was seriously disturbed the natural balance, killing whole populations of animals and plants. Despite the huge financial cost of the operation, the actual combat use was small.
This and other experiments over nature led to the conclusion that, in the first place will suffer no immediate enemy, and humanity as a whole. In 1978, entered into force Convention on the prohibition of military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques.
Now active work on the effects on weather conditions are underway in several States. You can always say that the studies are conducted for exclusively peaceful purposes.