What is a hurricane? The rating of the strongest in the world

Hurricane – wind speed exceeds 32 meters per second.

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It carries a force that destroys everything in its path. The naming of a hurricane is commonly used in the Americas and in Europe, in Asia tropical cyclone is called a Typhoon, reports Rus.Media.

The most dangerous of hurricanes – those formed near the coast, because they bring to shore a huge wave. In the US, the hurricane is customary to give names, and in alphabetical order, beginning with the letter “A”. Each year, the names give again. The word “hurricane” comes from Hurakan was the name of a God of fear from the Indians of the same South American tribe.

Types and classification of hurricanes

Hurricanes in its effect not inferior to the earthquakes. A hurricane destroys solid and the demolition of outbuildings, ravaging grain fields, and brings down the poles. Damage highways and bridges, breaks and pulls out trees with roots. There have been occasions when a hurricane destroyed the levees and dams that led to large floods, were thrown from the train tracks, pulling the pillars of bridges, were thrown on land vehicles.

The hurricane coverage for catastrophic destruction of hundreds of miles (sometimes thousands). Continues, element is usually 9-12 days. Wind speed is measured on a 12-point Beaufort scale. According to the wind force are determined by score and name.

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Hurricanes are subdivided into tropical and extratropical at their place of origin. Tropical hurricanes often divided into hurricanes, emerging over the Atlantic ocean and the Pacific. The latter are called typhoons.

Subdivide the hurricanes when the wind speed (km/h):

Hurricane (115-140)

Strong hurricane (140-170)

Violent hurricane (from 170)

The strength of a hurricane is determined by the Saffir-Simpson scale. It is used since 1973. Based on wind speed and includes an assessment of storm waves in each of 5 categories.

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Causes

Hurricanes are formed in tropical latitudes over the ocean. The farther from the equator, the less of a chance to meet with the hurricane. The formation of a hurricane due to the following reasons:

the difference in values of atmospheric pressure;

the difference in temperatures of the upper and lower layers of the atmosphere;

the force of the rotation of the Earth.

To cause a hurricane, the water temperature rises to a minimum of 27°C. the Hurricane is caused when warm and moist air coming into contact with the water of the ocean or sea, and begins to climb. Reaching great heights, it condenseries, releasing heat, which causes a to rise and condense other masses of hot air.

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A chain reaction. Meanwhile, the streams of air begin to rotate in a counterclockwise direction (clockwise in the southern hemisphere) due to the rotation of the Earth dragging the clouds. When the wind speed reaches 110-130 km/h, it becomes a hurricane. Hurricanes in the Northern hemisphere because of the rotation of the Earth moving West from Africa towards America).

How to escape from a hurricane

The element can overtake a man at any time and in any place. Judging by the number of dead and injured as a result of powerful hurricanes to be saved is not all. However, you need to know how to behave in the event of a hurricane.

If you are in the room

Away from the window and take a safe place at the walls of the inner rooms, corridors, bathrooms, storerooms, toilets. Durable hide in closets or under tables. Turn off the electricity, turn off the gas, close the vents, Windows and doors. Windows is better to stick with a criss-cross construction tape. Do not go outside. Use night lights and lamps.

If you were on the street

Step away from the lightweight structures – billboards, lights, stops and pavilions. Stay away from bridges, trees and overpasses. On the street you can get ripped from the roof of slate, thread, broken glass or ripped off a road sign. Find a sheet of plywood, hardwood or cardboard box and use them as a shield. Try to immediately find shelter. For this approach, underpasses, metro or sturdy construction.

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From traveling by car in a hurricane should be abandoned, but if the element you are caught in the path, stop and wait out the cyclone on the roadside or in the Parking lot. Located away from trees, power lines, billboards, and bus stops. Close the Windows and stay in the car, until the storm is over.

When the wind died down, do not hurry to go out, wait for the official announcement of the end element. Look when leaving the house — on the way there may be overhanging branches or parts of structures. Do not light the fire until, until you are certain that the gas leak was not. On the street better take a closer look at and do not approach fallen trees, swinging billboards, signs and other objects.

The most dangerous storms in the world

For all time of existence of mankind on the planet had a huge number of hurricanes, but seismologists started to record and calculate damages only 250 years ago. List the 5 most devastating hurricanes that occurred during this time.

“Bhola district”

A disaster of unprecedented scale struck East Pakistan and West Bengal (state in Eastern India) on 12 November 1970. Cyclone “Bhola” formed over the Bay of Bengal 8 November, and then began to shift to the North, along the way picking up speed.

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At the time of the peak it reached the coastline of East Pakistan. Some towns just wiped off the face of the Earth. The impact of storm-surge killed between 300,000 and 500,000 people.

Katrina

One of the most devastating hurricanes in the United States. The formation of a “Katrina” began in the region of the Bahamas on 23 August 2005. Even before he reached the coast of the United States, the hurricane was rated fifth (last) level of risk on a scale of hurricanes of Saffira-Simpson.

However, 12 hours before to attack the USA, the hurricane weakened to a category four. The wind speed Katrina reached 280 km/h. on August 27, the hurricane reached the coast of Florida and then turned in the direction of the Gulf of Mexico. The States of Louisiana, Alabama, Florida and Mississippi were declared disaster areas. Began a mass evacuation. New Orleans and surroundings left more than a million people.

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29 Aug 2005 hurricane reached the States of Louisiana and Mississippi. The levees of New Orleans, 70% of whose territory lies below sea level, were damaged. Began flooding the city. Katrina claimed the lives of 1,836 people (720 in New Orleans), economic losses amounted to $125 billion.

“Nina”

The super Typhoon swept over China and Taiwan in early August 1975. The hurricane, the wind speed reached 250 km/h, caused severe flooding, destroyed the largest in China’s Henan province, the Banqiao dam and the dam 62, wiped off the face of the earth 6 million buildings. During the disaster a water leak at 15.7 billion m3. The flood waters caused a wave height of 3 to 7 m and a width of 10 km.

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Nina claimed the lives of 26 000 people (drowned). But those of the Typhoon victims was not enough: more than 145,000 people died later from famine killed crops and over 300,000 head of cattle). The total number of victims ranges from 171 000 230 000 people. The damage from the hurricane is estimated at $1.2 billion.

“San Calixto II”

Hurricane San Calixto II” is considered the deadliest storm of the North Atlantic basin. He raged from 9 to 20 October 1780. The wind speed at the moment of collapse on Barbados exceeded 320 km/h.

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On the island of Barbados, the hurricane claimed the lives of 4,500 people. Near the island of Grenada crashed 19 Dutch ships. All “San Calixto II” lost 27 500 people.

“IKE”

This hurricane that raged in early September 2008, was rated the fourth category of danger. However, when “IKE” on the 13th reached the southern regions of Texas, it is weakened to the second category, the wind speed was 135 km/h.

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However, “IKE” was able to destroy the unlucky town of Galveston (1900 here I left a mess, killing 6,000 people). The hurricane has killed 195 people. However, in the story, he came in as the largest sized tropical cyclone in the Atlantic — diameter storm made 900-1450 km.

Hurricanes 2017

“Irma”

The hurricane of the fifth category of danger. Walked from the Islands of Cape Verde, touched on Cuba struck the Florida (USA). Recognized as the longest category five storm in the history of observations and the most deadly hurricane of the Atlantic hurricane season 2017.

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Formed August 30 and collapsed on 12 September 2017. The victims of the hurricane were at least 134 people. Material damage is estimated at $60 billion. the wind Speed ranged from 295 to 360 km/h.

“Harvey”

A little earlier, from August 17 to September 3, 2017, in the U.S. state of Texas hurricane “Harvey”.

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Heavy rains “Harvey” has caused strong floods in the South-Eastern part of Texas. Victims of hurricane of a steel 83 persons. The damage is estimated at $70 billion. the Wind blew with an average speed of 215 km/h.

“Maria”

Hurricane “Maria” developed from a tropical wave on September 16, 2017. The wind was blowing at a speed of 280 km/h and gusts up to 345 km/h on 19 September 2017, the hurricane caused catastrophic destruction on the island of Dominica, which was in its midst. 90% of the buildings on the island were damaged or destroyed.

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After Maria hit Puerto Rico. Throughout the country the power went out and communications. Killed 93 people and caused damage estimated at $51.2 billion

“Ophelia”

16 October 2017 Ireland caught up with the hurricane “Ophelia”, which raged from 9 to 20 October. Hurricane formed over the Atlantic ocean.

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The wind speed reached 185 kilometers per hour. The hurricane has the second category of danger. Through storm 360 million homes in the Republic of Ireland was de-energized. Known about three victims.

“Damri”

In November 2017, the strongest hurricane “Damri” descended on Vietnam. The impact of the disaster on Saturday morning occurred in Ho Chi Minh city and the province of Trang is a popular tourist destination.

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19 people died, are missing, destroyed hundreds of homes. 35 thousand people evacuated. Gusts of wind reached 180 km/h, Meteorologists said that this is the most powerful Typhoon in southern Vietnam for the past sixteen years.

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